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Quick submission checklist:

  • Valid email address for all authors 

  • Manuscript files - Word/LaTex and PDF

  • Figure files - JPEG/TIF/TIFF

  • Supplementary files - Cover Letter, Mandatory Submission Form, Copyediting Certificate (if applicable)

  • Impact Statement

  • Funding Statement and correct bank details

  • Ethics Approval and Consent Statement

  • Conflict of Interest Statement

To get started: The submitting and corresponding author(s) will be required to register with the journal in order to be able to follow the review process.

Ensure that your manuscript fits the scope of the journal and that you have chosen the correct article type. Out of scope submissions or submissions of the wrong article type will result in delays and potentially rejection. For additional details visit the Article Types and Author Guidelines pages.

During submission, the submitting author will be required to answer questions regarding the manuscript and research, as well as provide information and consent for all authors. Below is a checklist detailing the information that will be required.

The following is mandatory when submitting to the journal;

Author information

a) All authors listed on the manuscript must be added in the relevant tab during submission. Please have ready the names, emails, and affiliations of all the authors, and ensure the authors all qualify for authorship.

b) During submission, you will be requested to provide an author(s) contribution statement briefly describing the tasks of all individual authors.

File requirements

a) A manuscript PDF file generated from the submitted manuscript, and the source file. For LaTeX only: The BIB file if the references were not included in the TEX.

b) All figures in TIFF or JPEG formats, RGB color mode, with a resolution of 300 dpi, and complying with CC-BY license.

Permissions need to be obtained for re-published/adapted/modified/partial figures, and it is the responsibility of the authors to acquire the licenses, to follow any citation instructions requested by third-party rights holders, and cover any supplementary charges. Uploaded figures will be embedded at the end of the submitted manuscript.

c) Tables should be directly inserted into the manuscript and in source form (doc, tex), not as figures. You should prepare the files accordingly.


a) Please ensure that the relevant ethical approval and consent details were received and are available on request by the editor or Frontiers Editorial Office. You will be requested to declare involvement of any human or animal subjects, and inclusion of identifiable human data for the research during the submission process; declaration statements will be generated and automatically added to your manuscript. You do not need to include these statements in your source file.

b) The journal requires some types of data to be provided in manuscripts and encourages data to be deposited in public, community-supported repositories.

During submission, you will be requested to reply to a series of questions on the availability of the data used for the research. Based on your answers, a data availability statement will be generated and added to your manuscript. You therefore do not need to include a data statement in your source file.

Impact Statement

Ahead of submission, you should prepare a statement summarizing in 150 words your manuscript's contribution to, and position in, the existing literature of your field. This should be written avoiding any technical language or non-standard acronyms. The aim should be to convey the meaning and importance of this research to a non-expert. It should be formatted as a single paragraph without questions, and lists are not permitted.

Mandatory Submission Form

The Mandatory Submission form must be completed and submitted as a supplementary file. Authors should sign in English, in the same order as listed on the manuscript title page - electronically written signatures are NOT acceptable (verified DocuSign and Adobe generated signatures are acceptable).

Funding and payment

a) Details of all funding sources will be requested during submission and must be provided in a funding section of the manuscript, including grant numbers, if applicable. You should also mention funds received for open access publication fees, from your institution, library, or other grants. If you received no funding, please state this.

b) Prepare details ahead of submission on whom the invoice needs to be addressed to.